Les Séminaires du LOMA ont lieu le mardi à 14h dans le centre de documentation du 2ème étage (salle 215).
Contact : Julien Burgin (Bureau 107)

Agenda Google afin d’anticiper les prochains séminaires (afin d’éviter une double réservation, contacter le responsable dès que possible)


Date Titre Abstract présenté par lieu
Mardi 16/01/2018
à 14h
Self-propulsion of autophoretic particles Designing artificial micro swimmers has so far mostly followed bio-inspired design, reproducing the helical flagellum of bacteria or the beating of sperm cells. Those require however an external magnetic forcing to move, and as such are not truly self-propelled. Fuel-based or phoretic swimmers represent a promising alternative approach. Exploiting short-range interactions and physicochemical exchanges with their environment, they create a net slip forcing at their boundary in response to a tracer gradient. In this presentation, I will propose an overview of our recent work on the fundamental principles driving the individual locomotion of such active colloids in low-Re flows, focusing specifically on the role of geometry and the different symmetry-breaking mechanisms. Sébastien Michelin (LadHyX, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 05/12/2017 à 14h Using the Leidenfrost effect and hot hydrogels to make better bouncy balls The Leidenfrost effect occurs when an object near a hot surface vaporizes rapidly enough to lift itself up and hover. Although well-understood for liquids and stiff sublimable solids, nothing is known about the effect with materials whose stiffness lies between these extremes. In this talk, I will introduce a new phenomenon that occurs with vaporizable soft solids: the elastic Leidenfrost effect. By dropping hydrogel spheres onto hot surfaces we see that, rather than hovering, they harvest energy from their interaction with the surface and energetically bounce several times their diameter for minutes at a time. With high-speed video during a single impact, we uncover high-frequency microscopic gap dynamics at the sphere-substrate interface. These otherwise-hidden agitations constitute work cycles that siphon energy from the vapour and sustain the bouncing. The findings unleash a widely applicable strategy for injecting mechanical energy into soft materials, with potential relevance to fields ranging from soft robotics and metamaterials to microfluidics and active matter. Scott Waitukaitis (Universiteit Leiden/AMOLF, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 28/11/2017 à 14h A phase diagram for the organization off cell colonies
The regular distribution of neuronal cells, self-healing epithelial monolayers or 3D tumor formation are examples of active-organization of cells in tissues. While cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesions have a widely acknowledged implication in these macroscopic organizations, the role of the cell-specific contact repulsion called contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is less clear. In this work, we include these fundamental cellular functions in large scale 2D simulations of cell-like particles. We built a phase diagram which describes within the same unifying framework several of the known multicellular tissues. We provide theoretical scaling laws for transitions such as epithelial-mesenchymal transitions or the dewetting of a 2D epithelium into a 3D agglomerate, which signpost the biophysical pathways available to control these transitions. At last, I will present preliminary results of lens-free microscopy, a method that offers a unique mean to test the organization of large cell colonies.
Romaric Vincent (CEA, Grenoble)
Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 07/11/2017 à 14h Confinement–induced dynamical regimes
Recent studies have shown that the presence of boundaries can strongly affect the dynamics of physical systems. For example, negative mobility and fluid recirculation occurs when an electrolyte is driven in a varying-section channels, rectification occurs active particles such as molecular motors or active swimmers moving in inhomogeneous environments and off–diagonal terms in the mobility tensor appears for binary mixtures of hard sphere confined between corrugated plates. Clearly the interplay between the confined systems and the confining walls is maximized when the typical length scales of the confined system match with the size of the confining walls. In this contribution I will discuss the general mechanisms at the basis of the interplay between the confined system and the confinement. In particular, by means of a few example I will show how analytical insight into the possible regimes can be attained.
Firstly, I will discuss how the electrostatic interaction between a tracer particle and the channel walls affect particle dynamics. In such a scenario, novel dynamical regimes such as negative mobility and asymmetric passage times can arise due to the interplay between the electrostatic interactions and the local entropic drive induced by the varying–section channel.
Secondly I will show how the insight gained by such studies can be transferred to the problem of polymer translocation across varying–section channels.
In particular, I will show that, under suitable approximation, it is possible to reduce the problem of polymer translocation across varying–section channels to that of a single point–like particle under an effective potential that can be derived from the equilibrium local free energy of the polymer. Interestingly, the model predicts a non-monotonous dependence on the translocation time of the polymer across the pore appears.  By comparing with Brownian dynamics simulations I will discuss the quantitative reliability of the point–like approximation as well as its regime of validity.
Finally, when the interactions between the confined systems and the confinement  are non-conservative, as it happens for hydrodynamic interactions, the interplay between the confined system, say an active swimmer, and the confinement is more involved. I will, briefly discuss how such a scenario can be described on the basis of the experienced gained with the conservative forces.
Paolo Malgaretti (Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart, Germany) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Lundi 16/10/2017 à 14h Electrostatic interaction between chemically identical colloids The interaction between two chemically identical colloidal particles dispersed in a bulk electrolyte solution as well as trapped at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions will be discussed.
For the former case, the surfaces of the particles are charge-regulated. It is shown that, contrary to common assumptions, such surfaces are not necessarily equally charged and the resulting interaction can be attractive instead of repulsive [1].
For the latter case, the colloidal particles carry fixed surface charges, which can be different on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Within the framework of nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory it turns out that, under certain circumstances, an attractive interaction between them is still possible [2], which, however, cannot be captured by using the linearized PB theory [3].[1] A. Majee, M. Bier, and R. Podgornik, submitted.
[2] A. Majee, M. Bier, and S. Dietrich, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 064707 (2016).
[3] A. Majee, M. Bier, and S. Dietrich, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 164906 (2014).
Arghya Majee (Max Planck Institute/Universität Stuttgart, Germany) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 19/09/2017 à 14h Hydrodynamique des solutions de poly-électrolytes confinées : friction interfaciale et longueur de glissement complexe Les fluides complexes sont ainsi nommés à cause de leurs propriétés rhéologiques. Mais la façon dont ils s’écoulent, en particulier aux petites échelle comme dans les applications bio-médicales ou impliquant des milieux poreux (génie pétrolier), dépend également de leurs propriétés interfaciales.
Nous avons étudié des solutions de poly-électrolytes plus ou moins confinées avec un appareil de mesure de forces de s
urfaces dynamique, permettant de sonder leurs propriétés visco-élastiques dans une gamme d’épaisseur allant du nanomètre à la dizaine de micromètres. Sur cet exemple nous démontrons que la notion habituelle de longueur de glissement utilisée pour décrire l’hydrodynamique interfaciale des liquides simples, ne convient pas pour les liquides visco-élastiques. Pour ceux-ci, la description appropriée est la loi de Navier originale. Celle-ci permet de décrire très précisemment la force hydrodynamique complexe sur plusieurs décades spatiales et temporelle, avec un coefficient de friction liquide/solide simple, indépendant de la fréquence, et lié à la structure interfaciale de la solution, indépendamment de la complexité de sa visco-élasticité de volume.
Elisabeth Charlaix (Université Grenoble Alpes) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Vendredi 8/09/2017 à 14h Landau – Zener interferometry in multilevel systems We propose a universal approach to Landau-Zener (LZ) problem in a multilevel system. The problem is formulated in terms of generators of SU(N) algebra and maps the Hamiltonian onto the effective anisotropic pseudospin (N-1)/2 model. The vector Bloch equation for the density matrix describing the temporal evolution of the multilevel crossing problem is derived and solved analytically for two generic cases: i) three-level crossing problem representing a minimal model for a LZ interferometer and ii) four-level crossing problem corresponding to a minimal model of coupled interferometers. It is shown that the analytic solution of the Bloch equation is in excellent quantitative agreement with the numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation for the 3- and 4- level crossing problems. The solution demonstrates oscillation patterns which radically differ from the standard patterns for the two-level Landau- Zener problem: « beats », when the dwell time in the interferometer is smaller compared to a tunnel time and « steps » in the opposite limit. The possibilities of the experimental realization of LZ interferometers in the system of in two-well traps in optical lattices for ultra-cold gases are discussed. Mikhail N. Kiselev, ICTP, Trieste, Italy Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 4/07/2017 à 14h Signatures of Novel Spin Liquids in Kagome-Like Lattices Frustrated Magnets provide a playground for many-body phenomena, where competing magnetic short-range interactions allow for novel magnetic ground states. They offer the possibility to explore unconventional types of order, and to achieve spin liquids, which defy conventional thermodynamic ordering mechanisms down to the lowest temperatures. While conventional magnetic order can easily be seen in the magnetic susceptibility and spin-spin correlation functions, absence of order is very hard to characterise [1].

In this talk I will explain, based on two frustrated models with kagome-like structure made of triangular units, what kind of exotic thermodynamic and dynamical signatures appear in classical spin liquids.
First, I will consider the eponymous “shuriken” lattice. By using complementary analytical and numerical techniques, namely Husimi–tree calculations and Monte Carlo simulations, one can show that spin liquids perform a Curie-law crossover between different correlated regimes [2], providing a powerful signature which explains the difficulty for a precise estimate of the Curie-Weiss temperature in experiments[3].
Then, I will focus on recent neutron scattering experiments of Ca10Cr7O28 [4], where ring-like features suggest a new kind of spiral spin liquid, characterised by coexisting ordered spiral grounds states, allowing for a highly degenerate ground state manifold [5].

[1] Leon Balents, Nature 464, 11 (2010)
[2] Pohle et al. PRB 94, 014429 (2016)
[3] Nag et al. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 424, 93–98 (2017)
[4] Balz et al. Nature Physics 12, 942–949 (2016)
[5] Fouet et al. Eur. Phys. J. B 20, 241–254 (2001)

Rico Pohle

(OIST, Japon)

Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 27/06/2017 à 14h  Rides géantes sur la comète 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko engendrées par un vent thermique The recent approach of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the spacecraft Rosetta has revealed the presence of astonishing dune-like patterns. How can the radial outgassing, caused by heating when passing close to the sun, produce a vapor flow along the surface of the comet dense enough to transport grains? We show that the vapor flow emitted by the comet around its perihelion spreads laterally in thermal winds, due to the strong pressure difference between zones illuminated by sunlight and those in shadow. Drawing on the physical mechanisms at work for the formation of dunes on Earth and planetary bodies, we can explain the emergence of these bedforms in such extreme cometary conditions at the observed crest-to-crest size, about 10 m. Although generated by a rarefied atmosphere, they are in fact analogous to ripples emerging on granular beds submitted to viscous shear flows.

La sonde Rosetta, en orbite autour de la comète 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko pendant près de 2 ans, a révélé d’étonnants motifs sédimentaires ressemblant à des dunes. En effet, comment le dégazage dû au passage de la comète près du soleil, qui produit un flot de vapeur essentiellement radial, peut-il également produire un écoulement le long de la surface, assez dense pour transporter des grains? Nous montrons que ce dégazage se répand latéralement sous la forme d’un vent thermique, en réponse à la forte différence de pression entre la face au soleil et la face à l’ombre. À partir des mécanismes de formation des dunes, déclinés ici dans les conditions cométaires, nous arrivons à expliquer l’apparition de ces motifs à la taille observée: environ 10 m de crête à crête. Bien que générés par une atmosphère raréfiée, ils sont en fait analogues à des rides sur un lit granulaire cisaillé par un écoulement visqueux.


Ref: P. Jia, B. Andreotti and P. Claudin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, pp 2509-2514 (2017).

Philippe Claudin (ESPCI, Paris) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 20/06/2017 à 14h  Questions of wetting  This talk presents two recent studies in which wetting and wettability play key roles:1) How do gas hydrates spread over a substrate ?
Clathrate gas hydrates are ice-like solids in which a gas– N2, methane, CO2 or even larger– is encapsulated in molecular-sized pockets in a frozen aqueous matrix. Stable at high pressures (~100bar) and low temperatures (<~10°C), hydrates were long the bane of the petroleum industry, since they may block pipelines. But recently, they have been viewed either as a fabulous source of natural gas, locked in deposits on the ocean floors or under the permafrost, or a frightful hazard, should their accidental or intentional dissociation destabilize ocean sediments, not to mention the contribution to the greenhouse effect. Other applications include gas purification, refrigeration, and water desalination.
The importance of the interaction of the hydrate with a substrate– the container, or a sediment– is recognized, but so far was relatively little examined, and hardly at all from the point of view of mechanisms at microscopic scales. We have applied optical microscopy at ~1µm resolution to elucidate the growth processes. Combining wide field and confocal measurements with phase contrast, fluorescent tracer nano-particles, and a rigidochrome fluorescent dye to highlight interfaces, we show the importance of wetting, specifically a water precursor film and a breath figure (‘dew’), both nm’s thin, in the spreading of gas hydrates over a substrate.References:
M-L. Martínez de Baños et al, Cryst. Growth Des. 16 (2016) 4360-4373.
N. Hobeika et al, Langmuir 33 (2017) 5179-5187.2) Fluorescent ‘marigolds’ are prettier than ‘coffee-stains’.
A drying droplet containing suspended matter may leave a variety of patterns on the substrate, the most unwelcome being the familiar ‘coffee-stain’. This part will report, and we hope elicit discussion of preliminary measurements of a spectacular ‘marigold’ stain.
Ross Brown (UPPA, Pau) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 13/06/2017 à 14h  La rhéologie des suspensions non-Browniennes : une histoire de contact Les écoulements lents de suspensions de particules solides non-browniennes sont omniprésents dans les problématiques industrielles (polymères chargés, béton frais, moulage des propergols) et les phénomènes naturels (écoulements sédimentaires marins, glissements de terrain). Même lorsque le fluide suspendant est simple, ces suspensions exhibent une rhéologie complexe, et ce d’autant plus que la fraction de solide est élevée. Les modélisations en rhéologie des suspensions se sont longtemps focalisées sur les interactions hydrodynamiques entre particules. Cependant, la question des interactions directes entre particules, en lien avec la microstructure induite par le cisaillement, s’est posée de façon croissante, jusqu’à devenir centrale actuellement.

Dans cet exposé, j’aborderai quelques aspects récents de la physique des écoulements de suspensions non-browniennes en m’appuyant sur des expériences et des simulations. Je montrerai comment des mesures directes de la microstructure induite par un écoulement confirment l’existence de contacts directs entre particules via les rugosités de surface. Je discuterai ensuite, à travers des résultats de simulation numérique, de l’influence des forces de contact et en particulier de la friction sur le comportement rhéologique des suspensions. Enfin, je terminerai en présentant quelques expériences qui permettent d’estimer la contribution des forces de contact à la viscosité totale d’une suspension.

Elisabeth Lemaire

(Université de Nice)

Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 06/06/2017 à 14h Instabilités Interfaciales : 2 illustrations – Détergence
Comment peut-on extraire de l’huile d’un milieu confiné? Nous étudions une expérience de détergence dans laquelle de l’huile piégée dans un coin formé par deux plaques est chassée par une solution de tensio-actif, mouillant préférentiellement les plaques. La rencontre des deux liquides conduit à une déstabilisation de l’interface, des doigts réguliers apparaissent progressivement et des gouttes finissent par se détacher. Ces gouttes fuient la partie confinée de la cellule et l’huile peut facilement être collectée.- Étalements fleuris de Marangoni
Déposons une goutte d’un mélange d’eau et d’alcool à la surface d’un bain d’huile. Si la goutte est suffisamment alcoolisée, elle s’étale et éclate spontanément en une myriade de gouttelettes. La taille des gouttelettes éjectées dépend fortement de la concentration initiale d’alcool. Tout comme dans l’effet « larmes de vin », l’évaporation plus rapide de l’alcool induit des gradients de tension de surface (effet Marangoni) qui eux-mêmes engendrent un écoulement. Le couplage complexe entre hydrodynamique interfaciale, mouillage et évaporation peut être appréhendé par des lois d’échelle analytiques.
Nous tenterons d’illustrer ces deux phénomènes par des démonstrations en direct.
José Bico & Ludovic Keiser

(PMMH, ESPCI, Paris)

Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 30/05/2017 à 14h  Electrostriction and giant permittivity of polymer nanocomposites  The inclusion of conductive particles into insulating polymer matrices allows the synthesis of nanocomposites with tunable dielectric properties. In particular, giant permittivity is achieved when the conductive inclusions form near percolated networks. The permittivity of such nanocomposites strongly varies when the soft polymer matrix is deformed, giving rise to large electrostriction coefficients as needed in variable capacitors of energy harvesting devices.
Near percolated networks can easily be obtained with particles of anisotropic shape, such as carbon nanotubes, metal nanowires or graphene platelets. Because of their large aspect ratio, the particles exhibit a large excluded volume and a resultant low percolation threshold compared to spherical or quasi-spherical particles. The control of the spatial organization of the particles in the matrix is critical for the control of the material dielectric properties. We will present recent approaches to control the ordering of carbon nanotubes using emulsion templates to obtain enhanced dielectric permittivity and electrostriction coefficients [1]. We will also discuss differences or rod like particles from graphene platelets with giant anisotropy. The percolation behavior of graphene platelets has been recently predicted to be far more complicated than generally anticipated by excluded volume concepts [2]. Here, by characterizing the percolation transition in a liquid crystalline graphene based elastomer composite, we confirm experimentally that graphene flakes self-assemble into nematic liquid crystals (LCs) at concentrations below the percolation threshold [3]. We find that the competition of percolation and LC transition provides a new route towards high-permittivity materials. Near-percolated liquid crystalline graphene based composites display a giant permittivity along with a low loss tangent. The near percolated nanocomposites exhibit large permittivity variations in response to small strain deformations, giving rise to a giant electrostriction coefficients of about M= -5×10-14 m2/V2 at 100 Hz. The present materials are promising for uses in variable capacitors of energy harvesters. Their implementation in actual electronic devices is currently investigated.
[1] Luna, A., Yuan, J., Neri, W., Zakri, C., Poulin, P. and Colin, A., (2015) Giant Permittivity Polymer Nanocomposites Obtained by Curing a Direct Emulsion. Langmuir 31: 12231-12239.
[2] Mathew, M.; Schilling, T.; Oettel, M., Phys. Rev. E 2012, 85 (6), 061407.
[3] Graphene Liquid Crystal Retarded Percolation for High Permittivity Materials , J. Yuan, A. Luna, W. Neri, C. Zakri, T. Schilling, A. Colin, P. Poulin , Nat. Comm. (2015) 6, 8700.
Philippe Poulin (CRPP, Bordeaux) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 09/05/2017 à 14h  Le monde des brevets We all know that inventions can be protected thanks to a patent. But what exactly is a patent? What types of inventions can be protected by a patent? And, also how can a patent be obtained ?

My presentation will focus on an introduction of the patent field to help determining how research results can be protected or not by the intellectual property laws.

Marion Fauré (Cabinet Plasseraud, Paris) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 02/05/2017 à 14h Mécanisme de biogénèse de gouttelettes lipitiques dans les cellules  Les cellules eucaryotes contiennent un grand nombre de compartiments, ou « organelles », délimités par une membrane fluide faite de lipides et protéines. Il s’agit d’une organisation dynamique dans laquelle des structures apparaissent et disparaissent continuellement par déformation, fission et fusion de membrane. Ces processus sont en général effectués par des machineries protéiques consommant de l’énergie.Au cours de ce séminaire, je discuterai d’un modèle théorique de genèse d’un type particulier d’organelle appelée les gouttelettes lipidiques dont le rôle est de stocker et délivrer sur demande l’excès de gras ingéré par une cellule. Je montrerai que la fabrication d’une nouvelle gouttelette lipidique pourrait résulter d’une instabilité dans la membrane de l’organelle mère, instabilité contrôlée par les tensions interfaciales en jeu et les propriétés élastiques de la membrane. Lionel Foret (ENS, Paris) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 25/04/2017 à 14h What can we learn from Friedel oscillations in 2d semimetals? During this seminar, we will revisit the natural problem of elastic scattering through a localised impurity in (quastwo-dimensional (semmetals. Such an impurity is responsible for quantum interferences known as Friedel oscillations, i.e., long-range oscillations in the electronic density whose algebraic decay with the distance to the impurity was shown to be universal in every dimension [1].
However, the observation of Friedel oscillations in graphene via scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) actually taught us that their algebraic decay can be different from the one in a two-dimensional electron gas and is, in this sense, non-universal [2]. This non-universality has been related to the impossibility for the graphene electrons to be backscattered.On the one hand, we shall see how such non-universal behaviours of Friedel oscillations may be used in STM experiments to characterise a two-dimensional topological Lifshitz transition, namely the Dirac cone merging transition [3].On the other hand, we will discuss Friedel oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional semimetal, that is, rhombohedral N-layer graphene, one of the two most stable staking of graphene layers experimentally isolated. We will show that, even when Friedel oscillations exhibits conventional algebraic decay, there exists additional observable oscillations from which we can reconstruct the whole low-energy Bloch band structure of the material. This suggests that it would additionally be possible to image the 𝜋-quantised Berry phases that topologically protect the existence of nodal points in the semimetallic spectrum from STM experiments [4].
Clément Dutreix,

Laboratoire de Physique, ENS de Lyon

Salle des séminaires 2e étage Bât A4N
Mercredi 08/03/2017 à 14h  Searching for spin liquids in pyrochlore magnets
Spin liquids are often thought of as interacting magnetic systems which refuse to break a symmetry at any temperature. There is, however, much more to the physics of spin liquids than that- they exhibit novel and subtle properties such as algebraic correlations, topological excitations and emergent gauge fields.
Amongst the best studied examples of spin liquid physics are the spin ice materials Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, frustrated magnets on the pyrochlore lattice. Here, the spin liquid state is of a classical nature, being stabilised by its entropy. The topological excitations in spin ice take the form of magnetic monopoles and the correlations are described by an “electromagnetic » gauge field. These discoveries in the spin ices have led to an intense research interest in other pyrochlore materials, with the goal of finding a quantum variant of the spin ices in which the spin liquid is dominated by quantum fluctuations and the T=0 ground state is a highly entangled superposition of many spin ice configurations. Experimental studies of these candidate “quantum spin ices” have revealed many unexpected properties, however, which don’t fall easily into the spin ice picture. In this talk I will review progress in this area and present a theory of these frustrated pyrochlore materials, starting from a symmetry-based treatment of their anisotropic exchange interactions. This leads to an understanding of how competing phases govern the properties of many pyrochlore magnets, and to a prediction of completely new spin liquid phases falling outside the spin-ice paradigm.
Owen Benton (RIKEN, Tokyo, Japon) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 07/03/2017 à 14h  Les voiliers modernes vus par un physicien
Les voiliers de courses modernes sont en train de révolutionner leur mode de navigation. En s’élevant de plus en plus au-dessus de l’eau, perchés sur leurs « foils », ils ont battu de nombreux records notamment cet hiver.
En partant des principes physiques du fonctionnement d’un voilier je présenterai les causes et les conséquences de ces changements (par exemple que ces voiliers peuvent naviguer plus vite que le vent) et nous discuterons de ce qui peut encore limiter la vitesse de ces engins à voile.
Marc Rabaud (Univ. Paris Sud) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 28/02/2017 à 14h  How predictable is evolution?  The relative importance of determinism and contingency in biological evolution is the subject of a long-standing debate. In the words of Stephen J. Gould, if we could replay the tape of life on earth, would the outcome at all resemble the present biosphere? Recent work in the more modest arena of experimental evolution with microbes has begun to address some aspects of this question. In the colloquium I will introduce different notions of predictability that are relevant in this context, and describe factors that affect the stochasticity of the adaptive process in ways that can be quantified by mathematical models. In particular, the roles of the distribution of fitness effects, the constraints due to the structure of the space of genotypes, and the size of the adapting population will be discussed in some detail. Joachim Krug
(Univ. Cologne)
Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Jeudi 23/02/2017 à 14h  Kolmogorovian turbulence in transitional pipe flows  As everyone knows who has gradually opened a water faucet, pipe flows are initially laminar but become turbulent at high flow velocities. At intermediate velocities there is a transitional regime in which plugs of laminar flow alternate along the pipe axis with “flashes” of fluctuating, non-laminar flow. While it is known that flashes can fission, decay, and crowd out the intervening laminar plugs, the nature of “flash flow” (the flow inside flashes) remains poorly understood. In this talk, we show experimentally that flash flow satisfies the Blasius law of fluid friction, which is diagnostic of turbulence; thus, flash flow is likely to be but turbulent flow. To verify this possibility, we show that the statistics of flash flow are in keeping with Kolmogorov’s theory of the statistical structure of turbulence (so that, for example, at high wavenumbers, the turbulent-energy spectra of flash flow collapse onto the turbulent-energy spectra of turbulent flow, consistent with small-scale universality), with the implication that transitional pipe flows are segregated mixtures of a laminar phase and a turbulent phase. Our findings lend support to the widely-held, but hitherto unsubstantianted, notion that transitional pipe flows signal a non-equilibrium phase transition to turbulence. This research was carried out with Rory Cerbus, Chien-Chia Liu, and Pinaki Chakraborty, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University.  Gustavo Gioia

(OIST, Japan)

Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 21/02/2017 à 14h Multi-terminal Josephson junctions a topological matter
We show that n-terminal Josephson junctions with conventional superconductors may provide a straightforward realization of tunable topological materials in n−1 dimensions, the independent superconducting phases playing the role of quasi-momenta. In particular, we find zero-energy Weyl points in the Andreev bound state spectrum of 3 and 4-terminal junctions. The topological properties of the junction may be probed experimentally by measuring the transconductance between two voltage-biased leads, which we predict to be quantized
Manuel Houzet (INAC/PHELIQS CEA/Université de Grenoble Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 17/01/2017 à 14h Drude weight fluctuations in many-body localized systems Many-body localized systems are supposed to be perfectly insulating for temperatures below a critical temperature Tc. In this talk, we will discuss some of the transport properties of systems showing a transition to a many-body localized phase. In particular, we numerically investigate the distribution of Drude weights D of many-body states in disordered one-dimensional interacting electron systems across the transition. Drude weights are proportional to the spectral curvatures induced by magnetic fluxes in mesoscopic rings. They offer a method to relate the transition to the many-body localized phase to transport properties. In the delocalized regime, we find that the Drude weight distribution at a fixed disorder configuration agrees well with the random-matrix-theory prediction P(D)∝ (γ^2+D^2)^(-3/2), although the distribution width γ strongly fluctuates between disorder realizations. A crossover is observed towards a distribution with different large-D asymptotics deep in the many-body localized phase, which remarkably is not reproduced by the expected Cauchy distribution. We show that the average distribution width <γ>, rescaled by LΔ, Δ being the average level spacing in the middle of the spectrum and L the systems size, is an efficient probe of the many-body localization transition, as it increases/vanishes exponentially in the delocalized/localized phase. Michel Filippone (Université de Genève) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 13/12/2016 à 14h  Non-Markovian quantum thermodynamics: second law and fluctuation theorems  Fluctuation theorems show us that the second law of thermodynamics is only valid on average, with fluctuations violating it on short time-scales. I will give a gentle introduction to fluctuation theorems; explaining why they are interesting, and deriving one for a simple quantum system.I will then discuss our recent work which brings together Keldysh theory and quantum thermodynamics, by showing that a real-time diagramatic technique can provide a quantum equivalent of stochastic thermodynamics for non-Markovian quantum machines (heat engines, refrigerators, etc). We identify symmetries between quantum trajectories and their time-reverses on the Keldysh contour. These lead to quantum fluctuations theorems the same as the well-known classical ones (Jarzynski and Crooks equalities, non-equilibrium partition identity, etc), but which hold whether the system’s dynamics are Markovian or not. Our proof applies to systems with Kondo effects or other strong correlations, and to systems in superposition states or with time-dependent driving.
[Preprint: R.S. Whitney arXiv:1611.00670]
Dr. Robert S Whitney (Grenoble, France) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Lundi 12/12/2016 à 10h  Quantum non-linear dynamics of photons and Cooper-pairs in a superconducting circuit Embedding a Josephson junction within a superconducting microwave cavity provides a novel way of exploring strongly non-linear quantum dynamics. Energy from a flow of Cooper pairs through the Josephson junction (driven by an applied  voltage) pumps the cavity generating a large population of photons which in turn strongly affect the charge dynamics. This results in interesting non-equilibrium steady-states in the cavity which can have a range of non-classical properties. In this talk I will outline a simple theoretical model inspired by recent experimental work on Josephson junction-cavity systems and describe the coupled dynamics of the cavity photons and Cooper pairs.  Andrew Armour (University of Nottingham) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mardi 06/12/2016 à 14h  On light slower and faster than light We shall present, in a very-easy-to-understand language, three curiosities associated with light propagation and light scattering as follows : (1) It has been recently experimentally demonstrated that transverse spatially structured photons travel in free space slower than the speed of light [1]. We shall show that this experimental fact receives a very simple explanation in the language of Maxwell electromagnetism in the framework of the description of an arbitrary shaped beam in terms of an expansion over a (usually) continuous set of plane waves, providing an angular spectrum decomposition. The argument relies on the fact that almost all plane waves in the spectrum are tilted and therefore propagate along the direction of propagation of the beam with a velocity component lower than the speed of light. (2) Incidentally, the same decomposition provides an easy way to understand the failure of the optical theorem in the case of arbitrary shaped beam illumination of particles which has been analytically demonstrated a few years ago with fairly sophisticated mathematical instruments (both for vectorial [2] and scalar beams [3]). The argument relies on the fact that each plane wave has its own forward direction and that the forward direction of almost all plane waves is different from the forward direction of the beam. (3) opposite to item 1 dealing with light propagating slower than light in vacuum, we shall demonstrate that intensity spots inside a spherical particle illuminated by a pulsed laser may travel faster than light [4], and shall speculate on circumstances which would allow to produce Cerenkov radiation. The argument relies on the fact that, in nonlinear media, high energy intensity spots would possibly produce quasi-particles.

[1] V. Potocek G. Ferenzi F. Speirits S.M. Barnett D. Faccio M.J. Padgett
D. Giovannini, J. Romero. Spatially structured photons that travel in free space slower than the speed of light. Science-xpress, pages Article 10.1126, 6 pages, 2015.
[2] J.A. Lock, J.T. Hodges, and G. Gouesbet. Failure of the optical theorem for Gaussian-beam scattering by a spherical particle. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 12,12:2708-2715, 1995.
[3] G. Gouesbet. On the optical theorem and non-plane-wave scattering in quantum mechanics. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 50:Article number : 112302, 5 pages, 2009.
[4] M. Brunel, L. Mees, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan. Cerenkov-based radiation from superluminal excitation in microdroplets by ultra-short pulses. Optics Letters, 26,20:1621-1623, 2001.

 Gérard Gouesbet (Université de Normandie, Rouen) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
22/11/2016 à 14h
 Computational Nonlinear Optics After a short general introduction, I will focus on optics in so-called nonlocal nonlinear media. It is nowadays well appreciated that nonlocality has a dramatic impact on the dynamics in nonlinear systems. Nonlocality is usually associated with transport processes or inter-molecular long-range interactions. After a brief introduction to nonlocal nonlinear systems, with special emphasize on optics, I will first talk about wave collapse in systems with attractive spatially nonlocal nonlinearities. I will present rigorous collapse criteria for systems with singular nonlocal nonlinear interaction, similar to those known for the famous local nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In the second part of my talk I will switch to self-organization of light in optical media with competing nonlinearities. Self-organization constitutes one of the most fascinating phenomena appearing in nonlinear systems. During the process, strong interactions among the system components lead to the formation of spatial structures and long-range ordering. We recently demonstrated that the nonlocality of competing focusing and defocusing nonlinearities gives rise to self-organization and stationary states with stable hexagonal intensity patterns. Signatures of this long-range
ordering turn out to be observable in the propagation of light in optical waveguides and even in free space.
 Stefan Skupin (CELIA, Bordeaux) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
08/11/2016 à 14h
Glass Transition at Interfaces The simple geometry of a polymer film on a substrate with a step at the free surface -a stepped film- is unfavourable due to the excess interface induced by  the step, thus allowing for a fine rheological nanoprobe. After describing the experimental technique and the theoretical tools [1], we demonstrate how they enable to directly probe and understand the surface evolution of thin polymer films below the glass-transition temperature Tg [2]. While above Tg the entire volume between the substrate and the free surface participates to the flow, below Tg only a near-surface region responds to the excess interfacial energy. In the latter case, the developed thin-film theory for flow limited to the free-surface region is in excellent agreement with experimental data.
Furthermore, a microscopic theory based on random cooperative strings of molecular rearrangements provides support to those observations and allows to explain the Tg reductions observed in thinner films [3]. Strikingly, the system transitions from whole-film flow to surface-localised flow over a narrow temperature region near the bulk glass-transition temperature. The measurements and models presented provide a quantitative measure of surface mobility. Therefore, this study may contribute to feed further the ongoing debate around glass transition, at interfaces, and in confinement.fig-sales
Thomas Salez (ESPCI, Laboratoire Gulliver) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
18/10/2016 à 14h
Conical refraction: fundamentals and applications In 1832 Hamilton predicted that a collimated light beam propagating through a biaxial crystal parallel to one of its optical axes refracts as a slanted cone within the crystal and emerges as a hollow light cylinder, this optical effect being named as conical refraction (CR). In this seminar, I will explain the CR phenomenon following different approaches that allow understanding light propagation in biaxial crystals, including the case of multiple crystals in cascade. We will also see the description of the singular properties of the CR beams, presenting some examples such as optical bottle beams and beams carrying orbital angular momentum. All these features will serve to introduce some of the most appealing applications of CR in the fields of optical trapping, free-space optical communications, polarization metrology, super-resolution imaging, two-photon polymerization, and lasers.


Légende : Illustration of conical refraction of an ideally collimated beam propagating through a biaxial crystal


Alex Turpin (Spain) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
Mercredi 12/10/2016 à 14h Nanometric imaging of ultrashort plasmonic fields in single metallic nanoobjects Surface plasmons are elementary optical excitations resulting from the collective oscillation of the conduction electrons at metal surfaces. They dictate the optical properties of metallic nanoobjects. Surface plasmons allow confining optical energy at nanometer spatial scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. When the optical energy is provided by few femtosecond laser pulses, this strong confinement in space goes along with a strong confinement in time. While such strong spatio-temporal confinement opens up exciting perspectives, measuring the plasmonic fields induced by few-femtosecond laser pulses at the relevant spatial scales is extremely challenging to achieve.
We recently combined PhotoEmission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) with a few-femtosecond laser system to image ultrashort plasmonic fields in metallic nanoobjects with nanometric spatial resolution. After introducing PEEM as a plasmonic imaging tool, I will explain how, by using an interferometer, we could demonstrate that these ultrashort plasmonic fields show different time evolution between single nanoobjects as well as within single nanoobjects. I will then discuss how and why the time evolution of the plasmonic fields varies locally. In particular, I will highlight the main parameters governing the time evolution, namely, the laser excitation used in the setup and the shape of the nanoobject.
Arthur Losquin (Lunds Universitet) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
11/10/2016 à 14h
Cooperativity and laning of driven travers Several tracers driven in a dense bath tend to follow each other to increase their mobility, thereby forming lanes. This phenomenon is encountered in suspensions of charged colloids as well as in pedestrian traffic. The nature of this so-called « laning transition » has been debated: is it a crossover or a phase transition? In order to quantify the order in the system, we focus on the correlations between the tracers themselves and between the tracers and the bath. Our analytical approach is based on the linearization of the stochastic equations for the density fields. The correlations are found to be anisotropic and long ranged. Brownian dynamics simulations confirm our results and show that the shape that we predict holds far beyond the validity range of our computation, suggesting that it is universal. Finally, I discuss the model dependence of this behavior. Vincent Démery (Paris) Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
10/10/2016 à 11h
Helicity and duality symmetry in light-matter interactions My research has been revolving around the use of electromagnetic helicity and electromagnetic duality in light matter interactions. I use this pair in the general context of exploiting the symmetries of the scattering operators of the objects of interest. In my talk, I will give an overview of the framework and then speak about some results that I have obtained using it. For example, insights in optical activity, generalized zero back-scattering conditions, and a robust definition of electromagnetic chirality. I will then speak about future work, where I wish to use symmetry derived guidelines for the design of nanostructures with particular light-matter interaction properties. Ivan Fernandez-Corbaton Salle des séminaires 2ème étage Bât A4N
28/06/2016 à 14h
Une dualité onde-particule à échelle macroscopiques : les effets d’une « mémoire de chemin »  Une gouttelette rebondissant sur un bain liquide vibrant peut devenir auto-propulsée par son couplage aux ondes de surface qu’elle génère. Il en résulte la formation d’une entité composite associant une particule et une onde. A travers plusieurs expériences nous nous sommes intéressés à une même question: comment une goutte localisée et insécable peut-elle avoir une dynamique commune avec une onde spatialement étendue? Il y a entre ces deux composantes du système un échange itératif d’information. C’est la goutte qui génère l’onde et c’est cette dernière qui détermine où la goutte va aller. Il ne s’agit pas d’une écho-localisation classique car l’onde associée est stationnaire. A chaque rebond sur le bain vibrant la goutte crée une onde de Faraday localisée dont on peut régler à volonté le temps de vie Tau. Si ce Tau est long le champ d’onde global résulte de la superposition des ondes successivement émises. Il contient donc dans sa structure d’interférence une mémoire de la trajectoire antérieure. De façon surprenante, en présence de cette “mémoire de chemin“, plusieurs comportements de dualité apparaissent, conduisant dans ce système, en dépit de sa nature classique, à des formes de quantification. On discutera plus particulièrement des orbites possibles d’une goutte soumise à une force centrale. Yves Couder
Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
09/06/2016 à 14h
Bistability and Kondo effect in molecular quantum dots: numerics vs analytical results  Electrically contacted molecules might potentially become the basic building blocks of future nanoelectronic circuitry. The paradigm for description of their transport properties is a single fermionic level coupled to a local harmonic mode and external metallic electrode(s). This model is usually referred to as Holstein-Anderson or molecular quantum dot model. Within the framework of a very simple adiabatic approximation it can be shown to possess a regime of bistability, in which the current-voltage characteristics of the system turns out to develop a hysteresis. However, the precise parameter window, in which this kind of behaviour is possible is very difficult to identify. This is the central issue of the presentation, in which the problem is going to be discussed using recent results of numerical simulations with the help of conventional and diagrammatic Monte Carlo techniques as well as multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method. It will be shown, that the numerical results can be understood by an explicit mapping of the low energy effective theory to that of a well-understood single channel Kondo model.

References :
– J. Klatt, L. Mühlbacher, and A. Komnik, Phys. Rev. B 91, 155306 (2015)
– K.F. Albrecht, H. Wang, L. Mühlbacher, M. Thoss, and A. Komnik, Phys. Rev. B 86, 081412(R) (2012)
– S. Maier, T. L. Schmidt, and A. Komnik, Phys. Rev. B 83, 085401 (2011)

Andreas Komnik
Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Infrared surface plasmon and waveguide modes spectroscopy for live cell biosensing Over the past few years we study live cells using a unique infrared surface plasmon spectroscopy method. We measure infrared reflection spectrum in the vicinity of the critical angle using highrefractive index prism coated with semitransparent gold film.  This optical configuration, that also known as Kretschmann geometry, allows excitation of surface plasmon polaritons which traveling through the cells cultured on the gold film. By tracking the resonant wavelength and attenuation of the  surface  plasmon we characterize  the morphology  of cell  cultures  and  resolve  different phases in cell organization.

    In addition to surface plasmon resonance in infrared range, we discovered a novel bio-optical phenomenon of waveguide modes propagating inside living cells. We found that such waveguide modes can be observed in intact epithelial cell monolayers and thus can provide complimentary information about cell connectivity and cell layer thickness.
Combined together surface plasmon and waveguide modes enable precise structural analysis of cell  populations  in  real-time  and  in  label-free  manner.  This  has  great  importance  for understanding the collective behavior of cells in the context of tissues and organs.Reférences :
1.  Yashunsky, V. et al.  Real-Time Sensing of Enteropathogenic E. coli-Induced Effects on Epithelial Host Cell Height, Cell-Substrate Interactions, and Endocytic Processes by Infrared Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy . PloS ONE 8, e78431 (2013).
2.  Yashunsky, V. et al. Surface plasmon-based infrared spectroscopy for cell biosensing. Journal of Biomedical Optics 17, 081409-1-081409-8 (2012).
3.  Yashunsky, V. et al. Real-Time Sensing of Cell Morphology by Infrared Waveguide Spectroscopy. PloS ONE 7, e48454 (2012).
4.  Yashunsky, V., Lirtsman, V., Golosovsky, M., Davidov, D. & Aroeti, B. Real-time monitoring of epithelial cellcell  and  cell-substrate  interactions  by  infrared  surface  plasmon  spectroscopy.  Biophysical  Journal  99,  4028-4036 (2010).
5.  Yashunsky, V. et al. Real-time monitoring of transferrin-induced endocytic vesicle formation by mid-infrared surface plasmon resonance. Biophysical Journal 97, 1003-1012 (2009).
Victor Yashunsky
Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Approche multispectroscopique pour l’étude de
l’interaction laser-solides
L’irradiation d’un solide par une impulsion femtoseconde modifie la structure du matériau de façon transitoire ou permanente. Le fait que l’énergie lumineuse soit déposée dans le système électronique en un temps plus court que le temps d’équilibration des températures électronique et ionique conduit a une situation ou le système électronique est chaud (typiquement quelques eV) alors que les atomes sont encore froids. La physique de cet état hors-équilibre thermodynamique (parfois appelé « warm dense matter ») est à mi-chemin entre la physique du solide et celle des plasmas, ce qui la rend pour le moment très complexe à modéliser. L’interaction conduit, suivant le type de matériaux (métaux, semi-conducteurs etc.), à des processus spécifiques tels que l’affaiblissement des liaisons (« bond softening ») conduisant à la fusion « non-thermique », ou la création d’états liquides transitoires qui prennent place aux échelles femtoseconde/picoseconde. Le programme actuellement développé au sein du groupe PETRUX au CELIA a pour but de caractériser et de comprendre la dynamique de ces processus. Expérimentalement, cette compréhension nécessite de pouvoir mesurer les différents paramètres macroscopiques (températures, pression, constante diélectrique etc.) et microscopiques (ordre atomique, structure électronique etc.). Il est donc nécessaire d’appliquer une approche combinant plusieurs techniques expérimentales et différentes sources de lumière ultra-courtes (XFEL, source synchrotron, lasers optiques). En présentant les résultats de deux expériences (absorption X près des seuils (XANES) [1,2] et interférométrie fréquentielle (FDI) [3,4]) nous essaierons de montrer l’apport de cette approche « multi-spectroscopique ». Les résultats expérimentaux sont comparés à des simulations obtenues par méthode ab-initio ou de dynamique moléculaire classique. Ces résultats, outre leur intérêt purement fondamental, permettent de mieux comprendre des problèmes dans des champs aussi variés que la planétologie ou le stockage de données.
Reférences :
1. F. Dorchies, et al..Phys. Rev. B 92, 144201 (2015)
2. J. Gaudin, et al. Sci. Report B 4, 4724 (2014)
3. A. Levy, et al. Phys. Plasmas 22, 030703 (2015)
4. C. Fourment, et al.. Phys. Rev. B 89, 161110(R) (2014)
Jérôme Gaudin

(CELIA, Université de Bordeaux)

Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Bad Metal Behavior and Mott Quantum Criticality
According to early ideas of Mott and Anderson, the interaction-driven metalinsulator transition – the Mott transition – remains a sharp T=0 phase transition even in absence of any spin or charge ordering. Should this phase transition be regarded as a quantum critical point? To address this question, here we examine the phase diagram and transport properties of the maximally frustrated half-filled Hubbard model, in the framework of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We identify a “quantum Widom line” (QWL) which defines the center of the corresponding quantum critical region associated with Mott metal-insulator transition in this model. The evolution of resistivity with temperature is then evaluated along trajectories following (parallel to) the QWL, displaying remarkable scaling behavior characteristic of quantum criticality. Precisely this kind of behavior was found in very recent experiments on organic Mott systems [1,2].  In the case of the doping-driven Mott transition, we show that the mysterious “Bad Metal” behavior (T-linear resistivity around the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit) coincides with the Quantum Critical region of the Mott transition.
References :
[1]  Quantum  criticality  of  Mott  transition  in  organic materials,  Tetsuya  Furukawa, Kazuya  Miyagawa,    Hiromi  Taniguchi,    Reizo  Kato  &    Kazushi  Kanoda,  Nature Physics, 9 Feb. 2015;  doi:10.1038/nphys3235.

Vladimir Dobrosavljevic

(Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA)


Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Spin transport and giant thermomagnetic effects in ferromagnetic/superconductor structures Recent studies of non-equilibrium spin states in superconductors revealed a rich physics originating from the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity. Several experiments [1,2] observed a giant spin accumulation available in superconducting wires generated by the current injected from normal electrodes. The striking phenomenon of an extra-large spin relaxation length and time in superconductors with strong Zeeman splitting has been reported. In this talk I will suggest a theoretical explanation of these experiments. It will be shown that a non-equilibrium spin polarization can be generated from heat injection due to the peculiar thermomagnetic effect in superconducting wires [3]. Various possibilities of generating long-living non-equilibrium spin states and manipulating spin-polarized currents in superconductors will be discussed. I will demonstrate that superconductivity can either strongly enhance or suppress the coherent spin rotation [4], depending on the type of spin relaxation mechanism being dominated either by spin-orbit coupling or spin-flip scattering at impurities.

References :[1] C.H.L. Quay, D. Chevallier, C. Bena, M. Aprili, Nature Phys. 9, 84 (2013).
[2] F. Hübler, M.J. Wolf, D. Beckmann, H. v. Löhneysen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 207001 (2012).
[3] M. Silaev, P. Virtanen, F. S. Bergeret, and T. T. Heikkilä, Long-Range Spin Accumulation from Heat Injection in Mesoscopic Superconductors with Zeeman Splitting, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 167002 (2015).
[4] M. Silaev, P. Virtanen, T. T. Heikkilä, and F. S. Bergeret, Spin Hanle effect in mesoscopic superconductors, Phys. Rev. B 91, 024506 (2015).


Mihail Silaev

(KTH Royal institute of technology, Stockholm, Sweden)

Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Propriétés optiques linéaires et non-linéaires de nanofils de silicium  Les nanostructures de silicium présentent des propriétés optiques originales grâce à l’apparition de résonances optiques dans la gamme UV-NIR dépendant de leur taille et
forme. Ces résonances peuvent être utilisées pour augmenter et contrôler l’interaction lumière-matière.  Les  efficacités  de  diffusion,  d’absorption  et  le  champ
électromagnétique local peuvent être amplifiés et ajustés spectralement et spatialement, propriétés  intéressantes  pour  le  photovoltaïque  ou  les  spectroscopies  exaltées.  Les
effets  non-linéaires peuvent  être  amplifiés  par ces  nanostructures,  d’autant  qu’ils sont intrinsèquement  faibles.  Ainsi,  la  génération  de  seconde  harmonique  (SHG), permise dans Si uniquement en cas de rupture de symétrie (surfaces), peut être augmentée par la présence de résonances et un rapport surface-sur-volume élevé dans les nanostructures. Je présenterai les propriétés linéaires et non linéaires de nanofils individuels de silicium obtenus par croissance CVD ou par lithographie électronique sur SOI.
Je montrerai que  les  résonances  de  Mie  sont  fonction  du  diamètre  du  nanofil  et  de  la polarisation  de  la  lumière  incidente,  et  que  ces  modes  peuvent  être  utilisés  pour modifier  la  photoluminescence  de  nanocristaux  de  Si  placés  dans  le  champ  proche  du
Ensuite, je  m’intéresserai  à  la  génération  de  seconde  harmonique  qui est  fortement  augmentée  si  une  résonance  de  Mie correspondant  à  l’excitation  ou  à  l’émission est supportée  par  le  nanofil.  A  l’opposé,  aucune  SHG  n’est  détectée  en  l’absence  de résonance. Je discuterai de l’origine de la SHG par les nanofils de Si et de phénomènes comme la rotation de polarisation non linéaire en fonction de la taille du nanofil.

Vincent Paillard

(Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse)

Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Thermoelectric diffusion in ferrofluids: Possible application of complex fluids in waste-heat recovery In simplest terms, thermopower describes the material’s property where an electric voltage ∆V, is induced by the application of a temperature difference ΔT across its body: ∆V=-Se ∆T, where Se is the Seebeck coefficient. The great majority of today’s thermoelectric (TE) research is focused on improving the efficiency of solid-state TE materials via nanostructuring; which presents a substantial production cost. A cheaper and simpler alternative to convert low temperature waste heat into electrical energy can be found in “liquid thermocells” using complex fluids such as ferrofluids. In ferrofluids, Se is coupled to the movement of charged ionic species (macro-ions, nanoparticles, etc.) and thus it is closely related to the “Soret effect,” i.e., the thermal diffusion of nanoparticles.
At SPEC/CEA-Saclay, we are investigating the thermopower of ionically stabilized ferrofluids made of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in various non-magnetic liquid media (e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide, water and ionic liquids) under a temperature gradient. The thermopower is measured as a function of nanoparticle concentration and the results are compared to the corresponding Soret coefficients determined via Forced Rayleigh scattering technique (by PHENIX/UPMC). We interpret the connection between the thermoelectric and thermodiffusion effects in terms of a common parameter, the Eastman entropy of transfer of nanoparticles. The values of the Eastman entropy of transfer obtained from both experiments are a few orders of magnitude larger than typical electrolyte ions and are in a quantitative agreement, lending support to the existing theoretical models. Simultaneously, our findings open a new research and technological path for ferrofluids, and other complex fluids in thermoelectric device applications.
With time permitting, I will also discuss other examples of thermoelectric complex fluids currently studied in our group.

Sawako Nakamae

(CEA Saclay, IRAMIS)

Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Etudes expérimentales de l’instabilité de Rayleigh-Taylor dans des plasmas denses et chauds  La mise en service des lasers de puissance de nouvelle génération comme le NIF (National Ignition Facility) ou le LMJ ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour des expériences d’hydrodynamique non-linéaire dans des plasmas denses et chauds [1]. On détaillera en particulier dans cet exposé la physique de l’Instabilité de Rayleigh-Taylor (IRT) se développant au front d’ablation. Le contrôle de l’IRT ablative est actuellement l’une des principales difficultés rencontrées dans les expériences de Fusion par Confinement Inertiel (FCI), tant en attaque indirecte [2] que directe [3].

Figure 1: Radiographie de la croissance par IRT de défauts monomodes et multimodes gravés initialement sur une plaque accélérée par le flux X d’une cavité alimentée par 266 kJ d’énergie laser.

Dans le cadre d’expériences académiques Discovery Science sur le NIF, nous avons pu étudier le stade fortement non-linéaire de l’IRT ablative en attaque indirecte [4]. En tirant parti des durées et distances d’accélération plus grandes permises par le surplus d’énergie laser, nous avons pu accéder pour la première fois en attaque indirecte à un régime de compétition / mélange de bulles au front d’ablation [5] en partant d’un motif 2D multimode de perturbations initiales (cf figure 1). La sensibilité aux conditions initiales et au mécanisme de stabilisation de l’IRT a été quantifiée au cours d’une campagne de 10 expériences s’étalant de mars 2013 à août 2015.
La stabilisation ablative de l’IRT étant dépendante du schéma d’irradiation, les résultats préliminaires d’une plateforme d’attaque directe utilisant 96 faisceaux du NIF et 0.5 MJ d’énergie laser seront aussi évoqués. Les défauts d’empreinte induits par les speckles laser sont une problématique propre à la FCI en attaque directe [3] et des schémas innovants de réduction de l’empreinte par lissage plasma ont récemment été démontrés [6,7].

Reférences :
[1] A. Casner et al., High Energy Density Physics, vol. 17, Part A, p.146 (2015).
[2] O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014).
[3] V.N.Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014).
[4] A. Casner et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056302 (2015).
[5] D.A.Martinez et al., Physical Review Letters 114, 215004 (2015).
[6] M. Olazabal et al., New Journal of Physics, 15, 085033 (2013).
[7] B. Delorme et al., submitted to Phys. Plasmas


Alexis Casner

(CEA LE Barp)

Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
 « Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of dynamic IR thermograms and X-ray mammograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis »  Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and despite recent advances in the medical field, there are still some inherent limitations in the currently used screening techniques. The radiological interpretation of X-ray mammograms often leads to overdiagnosis and, as a consequence, to unnecessary traumatic and painful biopsies. First we use the 1D Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method to reveal changes in skin temperature dynamics of women breasts with and without malignant tumor. We show that the statistics of temperature temporal fluctuations about the cardiogenic and vasomotor perfusion oscillations do not change across time-scales for cancerous breasts as the signature of homogeneous monofractal fluctuations. This contrasts with the continuous change of temperature fluctuation statistics observed for healthy breasts as the hallmark of complex multifractal scaling. When using the 2D WTMM method to analyze the roughness fluctuations of X-ray mammograms, we reveal some drastic loss of roughness spatial correlations that likely results from some deep architectural change in the microenvironment of a breast tumor. This local breast disorganisation may deeply affect heat transfer and related thermomechanics in the breast tissue and in turn explain the loss of multifractal complexity of temperature temporal fluctuations previously observed in mammary glands with malignant tumor. These promising findings could lead to the future use of combined wavelet-based multifractal processing of dynamic IR thermograms and X-ray mammograms to help identifying women with high risk of breast cancer prior to more traumatic examinations. Besides potential clinical impact, these results shed a new light on physiological changes that may precede anatomical alterations in breast cancer development.

References :
E. Gerasimova, B. Audit, S.-G. Roux, A. Khalil, F. Argoul, O. Naimark and A. Arneodo, Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer, Europhysics Letters 104, 68001 (2013)
E. Gerasimova, B. Audit, S.-G. Roux, A. Khalil, O. Gileva, F. Argoul, O. Naimark and A. Arneodo, Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis, Frontiers in Physiology 5, 176 (2014)


Alain Arneodo

(CNRS, LOMA, Bordeaux)

Salle des séminaires 3ème étage
Quantum Dots for Bio-energetics and Enhanced Light Harvesting; Exploration of Energy Transfer from Semiconductor Nanocrystas to Photosynthetic Biological complexes  Review will be presented of our recent results on development of hybrid material build from semiconductor nanocrystals and photoactive bio-complexes: – membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin and photosynthetic reaction centers purified from bacteria Rhodobacter spheroides. We have demonstrated that nanocrystals specifically immobilized on the surface of the photo-active bio-systems are able to play the role of a built-in light energy convertor by harvesting light which would not be absorbed efficiently by the bio-system alone. Semiconductor nanocrystals were further demonstrated to be able to transfer the harvested energy via highly efficient FRET to this complex biological system. In nonlinear optical regime the integration of nanocrystals with backteriorhodopsin results in strong wavelength-dependent enhancement of nonlinear refraction index. We have also demonstrated a first proof-of-the-principle evidence that the bacteriorhodopsin is able to utilize the transferred by nanocrystals additional energy to improve the efficiency of its biological function. This new hybrid materials with exceptional linear and nonlinear optical properties might have numerous photonic and optoelectronic applications employing photochromic, energy harvesting, transfer and conversion properties.

References :
1. I. Nabiev et al. “Fluorescent Quantum Dots as Artificial Antennas for Enhanced Light Harvesting and Energy Transfer to Photosynthetic Reaction Centers”, Angewante Chemie International Edition, 2010, 49, 7217
2. A. Rakovich et al. “Resonance Energy Transfer Improves the Biological Function of Bacteriorhodopsin within a Hybrid Material Built from Purple Membranes and Semiconductor Quantum Dots”, Nano Letters, 2010, 10, 2640.
3. A. Rakovich et al. “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Response in a Hybrid Nanobiomaterial Consisting of Bacteriorhodopsin and Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots” ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 2154.
4. A. Rakovich et al. “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems”, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C 2014, 20, 17.


Yuri Rakovich

(CFM, San Sebastian, Espagne)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
Effet Marangoni de tensioactifs solubles La présence d’un gradient thermique ou d’un gradient de concentration de surface en molécules tensioactives le long d’une interface entre deux liquides conduit à l’existence d’un gradient de tension interfaciale et à l’établissement d’un écoulement dans le volume de chaque liquide : c’est l’effet Marangoni, thermique dans le premier cas et solutal dans le second. Durant ce séminaire, je présenterai les travaux auxquels j’ai participé ces dernières années concernant l’effet Marangoni solutal [1, 2, 3].
Bien qu’important pour de nombreuses applications (enduisage, stabilité des films de savon,etc), l’effet Marangoni solutal a été étudié essentiellement dans le cas où les molécules tensioactives s’étalent à la surface libre d’une couche liquide mince dans laquelle elles sont insolubles. Cependant, la solubilité des tensioactifs doit affecter l’écoulement de Marangoni obtenu puisque les molécules peuvent non seulement se déplacer le long de l’interface, mais aussi s’en désorber pour diffuser dans le volume. Je montrerai comment nous avons relié les propriétés de l’écoulement de Marangoni à aux propriétés des tensioactifs (solubilité, présence d’impuretés, géométrie du système, etc), et les développements que nous menons autour d’une méthode rapide de caractérisation des tensioactifs. Je terminerai en présentant une étude en cours concernant la structure de l’écoulement de surface, et en particulier l’origine des paires de tourbillons bidimensionnelles observées à l’extérieur de la zone Marangoni.Références
[1] M. Roché, Z. Li, I. M. Griffiths, A. Saint-Jalmes, and H. A. Stone. Phys. Fluids, 25, 091108 (2013).
[2] M.Roché, Z. Li, I. M. Griffiths, S. Le Roux, I. Cantat, A. Saint-Jalmes, and H. A. Stone. Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 208302 (2014).
[3] S. Le Roux, M. Roché, I. Cantat, and A. Saint-Jalmes. accepté à Phys. Rev. E.

Matthieu Roché

(Univ. Paris Diderot)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
Quantitative Phase Imaging in optical (super-resolution) microscopy for biology studies Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) is a powerful optical method to enhance the knowledge about a micro/nanoscopic samples. It relies on the capability to measure not only the intensity of the light but also its phase. This provides several types of information depending on the illumination scheme or imaging mode.

QPI was initially developed to image microscopic structures inside semi-transparent samples (ex. nucleus), without labelling/staining and using coherent transmitted light -such as a laser. I will show recent breakthrough using our QPI technique based on quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry [1] coupled with incoherent halogen trans-illumination. It allows label-free cytoskeleton and organelle trafficking imaging at up to 50 Hz and for any duration [2].

I will then present for the capability to retrieve the 3D spatial distribution of particles (such as gold nanobeads) with a sub-nanometric localization by the simultaneous use of intensity and phase imaging. I will show the use of this method to stabilize the drift of a super-resolution microscope.

[1] Bon, Maucort, Wattellier, and Monneret, « Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells, » Opt. Express 17, 13080-13094 (2009)
[2] Bon, Lécart, Fort, Lévêque-Fort, “Fast Label-Free Cytoskeletal Network Imaging in Living Mammalian Cells”, Biophysical J., 106, 1588 – 1595 (2014)
[3] Bon, Bourg, Lécart, Monneret, Fort, Wenger, Lévêque-Fort, “Three-dimensional nanometre localization of nanoparticles to enhance super-resolution microscopy”, Nat. Comm.,6 , 7764  (2015)

Pierre Bon


Salle des séminaires 3ème
 The active motion of Janus colloids at the surface of water At the single-particle level, the main difference between active colloids and passive ones is the time scale over which the motion crosses from ballistic to diffusive regime. In both cases, friction coefficients or equivalently diffusion coefficients determine this time scale. For instance, the motion of a passive colloid of 1µm radius is diffusive when observed over lag times longer than a microsecond, once the direction of its momentum has been randomized by collisions with solvent molecules. At the macroscopic scale these collisions are accounted for by the translational friction coefficient. For an active colloid the effective diffusive behavior observed over lag times larger than few seconds results from the randomization of the direction of self-propulsion by rotational diffusion. This talk deals with an experimental investigation of the motion of isolated active Janus colloids trapped at air-water interface. Spherical catalytic Janus colloids have been prepared through the deposition of platinum metal at the surface of silica particles. Immersion depth of the Janus colloid as well as their orientation with respect to the water surface, has been characterized and interpreted in terms of the nonuniform wetting properties of the Janus particles. The motion of the active Janus colloids in the presence of various concentration of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 as fuel was characterized by video microscopy and the trajectories analyzed through the mean square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function. The types of trajectories, directional and circular ones that we observed in our experiments, revealed the effective force and torque induced by the catalytic decomposition of H2O2. At the water surface, active colloids perform more persistent directional motions as compared to the motions performed in the bulk. This has been interpreted as due to the loss of degrees of freedom resulting from the confinement at interface and also to the partial wetting conditions that possibly bring new contributions to the rotational friction at interface.



Antonio Stocco

(Univ. Montpellier)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
Thermal microscopy in plasmonics using wavefront sensing. Applications in physics, chemistry and cell biology

The use of gold nanoparticle as nanosources of heat is now at the basis of a well-established area of research, termed thermoplasmonics.
So far, the most famous practical developments have been related to biomedical applications (cancer therapy, drug release, nanosurgery, etc). One of the major limitation that the field is currently facing is the difficulty to reliably measure the local temperature increase in plasmonic systems, a vital information to carry out new investigations in a wider range of applications.
In this presentation, I will first introduce a thermal microscopy technique that we recently developed. This technique, based on optical wavefront sensing measurements, cumulates all the advantages required for plasmonics investigations. In particular, it label-free, it features a sub-micrometric spatial resolution, a 1 K temperature sensitivity, a frame rate of 1 Hz and it is simple to implement. Then, I will detail most of the achievements that this technique enabled us to conduct these last years using plasmonic nanoparticles, namely the studies of phase transition (bubble formation), microscale fluid convection, fluid superheating, microscale temperature shaping at will, nanochemistry and thermal biology at the single cell level.


Guillaume Baffou

(CNRS, Institut Fresnel, Marseille)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
Ecoulements induits par l’absorption d’une onde laser dans un système fluide à une et deux couches Le dépôt de particules, dont un exemple est donné sur la figure a), engendré par l’évaporation d’une goutte chauffée par l’absorption d’une onde laser continue est un phénomène complexe . En effet, cette goutte est un système composé de deux fluides : un liquide et de l’air. Lorsque la goutte est chauffée, les particules sont mises en mouvement par des écoulements qui résultent de la compétition entre deux effets. D’une part, la masse volumique du liquide est modifiée par le gradient de température (flèches rouges sur le schéma b)). Le gradient de masse volumique ainsi généré est l’un des moteurs de l’écoulement : ce sont les effets thermogravitaires (flèche bleues sur le schéma b)). D’autre part, le gradient de température génère un gradient de tension de surface le long de l’interface (flèches vertes sur le schéma b)). Cela induit des contraintes visqueuses qui sont le second moteur de l’écoulement : ce sont les effets thermocapillaires. Afin de bien comprendre la compétition entre ces deux effets, nous avons utilisé une approche expérimentale et numérique afin d’étudier ces deux effets séparément.  

David Rivière (LOMA, Univ. Bordeaux)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
Gravitation Analogue en Hydrodynamique

Ce séminaire sera l’occasion d’introduire un courant de recherche à l’interface entre la cosmologie et la physique de la matière condensée. La gravitation dite analogue a pour objet la simulation de processus astrophysiques avec des expériences de Physique classique ou quantique . Nous présenterons nos travaux en hydrodynamique classique et plus particulièrement sur l’interaction houle-courant. Ainsi, l’analogue d’un trou noir, d’une fontaine blanche et d’un trou de ver seront discutés.


Germain Rousseaux

(PPrime, CNRS, Univ. Poitiers)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
20/10/ 2015
 Dual Terahertz frequency comb THz frequency comb, composed of a series of frequency spike regularly spaced by a repetition frequency, can be used as a precise and accurate frequency marker for broadband THz spectroscopy because it can be phase-locked to a microwave frequency standard by laser control. The mode-resolved THz comb spectrum is obtained by dual  comb technique and applied for low-pressure gas spectroscopy. Takeshi Yasui

(Univ. Tokushima)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
13/10/ 2015
 Success After University: Taking the right steps towards a career in science

What will you do after your degree? How will you achieve your ideal science career? This interactive presentation aims to help make a smooth transition from student to professional and includes tips on networking, career paths, CV preparation, and how to market yourself to potential employers. Professional development is crucial for everyone – especially non-permanents – from Intern to Masters, from PhD to Postdoc, and everyone must actively prepare for their future career.

Bryan Kuropatwa

(LOMA, Univ. Bordeaux)

Salle des séminaires 3ème
Drops in an electric field: instabilities, bifurcations and phase field modelling The influence of electric fields on the shape and evolution of drops is an important problem in the context of technological applications such as electrowetting. The term electrowetting is commonly used for some techniques to change the shape and wetting behaviour of liquid droplets by the application of electric fields and charges. First, we describe the presence of symmetry breaking bifurcations and their physical role in the development of instabilities. We also discuss the possible formation of singularities at the liquid surface. We then develop and analyze a model for electrowetting that combines the Navier-Stokes system for fluid flow, a phase-field model of Cahn-Hilliard type for the movement of the interface, a charge transport equation, and the potential equation of electrostatics. A critical role in the deduction of suitable couplings between phase field and other physical fields is played by variational principles involving suitable energies. Marco Fontelos

(ICMAT, Madrid)

Salle des séminaires 3ème